Tasking Event-B Tutorial

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For more information contact Andy Edmunds - University of Southampton - mailto:ae2@ecs.soton.ac.uk

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Tasking Event-B Tutorial Overview

This tutorial follows on from the abstract development described here.

This code generation tutorial extends the Heating Controller tutorial example, and makes use of example projects from the download site. The code generation stage produces Java code, and also an Event-B model. It is a model of the implementation, and contains flow control variables that model the flow of execution through the task body. The Java code is produced from an intermediate model that is not visible to the user. The Common Language model (CLM), is generated from the Tasking Event-B by a translation tool. Java (and other implementations) may be generated from the CLM. An overview of Tasking Event-B can be found here.

In the example so far, the Heating Controller has been refined to the point where we wish to add implementation constructs. The Event-B language is not expressive enough to fully describe the implementation. Tasking Event-B facilitates this final step to implementation, by extending Event-B with the necessary constructs. Event-B machines modelling tasks, shared objects and the environment are identified, and extended with the appropriate implementation details.

The example/tutorial projects are are available from Git or clone this.

Heating_ControllerTutorial2_Completed An example project with an environment simulation. The environment variables are monitored and controlled using subroutine calls. The project contains a complete Tasking Development with generated Event-B and Java code.
Heating_ControllerTutorial2_Partial1 A project with the final decomposition completed, ready to begin Tasking Event-B Development.
Heating_ControllerTutorial2_Partial2 A partially completed tasking specification for the continuation of the tutorial.
TheoriesForCG Contains the mathematical language translations; encoded as rules in a theory plug-in rule-base.

Using the Tasking Extension

The steps needed to generate code from an Event-B model, in this tutorial, are as follows,

Download and Copy the Theories

The translations of the Event-B mathematical language to the target language constructs are specified as rules in the theory plug-in. Example rule files are included for the example, and are available in MathExtension from the Git repository, or clone this. After checking out the theories, they must be un-deployed, then re-deployed, ensuring that the builder creates all of the appropriate files. Right-Click on the theory file and select deploy to do this. If you already have a MathExtensions folder then it should be renamed else the import will be prevented. Files from this folder can be copied and deployed in the new folder if necessary.

Adding the Implementation Level Refinement

The final decomposition generates the machines that are required for code generation. However, it is not possible to edit the machines since they are machine generated, and therefore this is prohibited. In order to be able to modify the models we will refine the generated machines. This is where we begin with the Heating_ControllerTutorial2_Partial1 project (Where the pre-processing steps, described below, have been performed already). To refine the machines we can use the automatic refinement feature, but this presents us with two problems that are dealt with in the pre-processing steps.

Pre-processing

The pre-processing step, described here, is done automatically by the tool. The description is provided to assist with understanding the changes that occur to a model, during the code generation phase.

  • The Code Generator requires a flattened, and annotated, version of each machine; all of the Event-B elements are made available in the implementation level machine.
'Flattening' the Implementation Machines
  • Events are changed to be not extended.
  • Abstract invariants are copied to the implementation level machine.
Annotations are provided automatically
  • Typing annotations are added to typing invariants and axioms where they type variables and constants.
  • Parameter directions (in or out) are inferred from the events.

Manually correcting the Composed Machine

The hierarchy created by successive machine decompositions gives rise to a tree of refined events. Only the leaf event nodes are used during code generation. In the current code generator there is no algorithm to navigate this tree automatically. Therefore the composed machine points to the incorrect machines and events.

We must manually change the composed machine to address this problem.

  • Modify the lowest level decomposed machine, HCtrl_M1_cmp, to include the implementation level machines (task names ending in *Impl). To do this,
  • open the composed machine editor. Open the INCLUDES edit feature.
  • Select the second drop-down box and find the *Impl version of each machine.
  • Save the composed machine.
  • Now add missing synchronizations to the composed machine. Add the Envir1Impl to the includes of HCtrl_M1_cmp.
  • Each composed event in the task, that synchronizes with the Environ machine, must have the remote event synchronization added manually. This can only be done by inspection of each composed event. We need to update Sense_Temperatures, Display_Current_Temperature, Actuate_OverHeat_Alram, Actuate_Heat_Source, Sense_Heater_Status, Actuate_NoHeat_Alarm, Sense_PressIncrease_Target_Temperature, Sense_PressDecrease_Target_Temperature, Display_Target_Temperature. One by one, expand the events in the composed events section of the composed machine editor; add a new event in the combines events section, select Envir1Impl and add the synchronizing event from the list-box to the right.

Removing Non-deterministic Constructs

It is also at this stage that any remaining non-deterministic constructs should be removed by replacing them with deterministic constructs.

TIP: Non-deterministic constructs cause strange characters to appear in the source code. If you see strange characters in the generated code, check for non-deterministic constructs in the implementation level machines.

Alter_Temperature_Sensor1 in Envir1Impl: action becomes ts1 := ts1 + 1
Alter_Temperature_Sensor2 in Envir1Impl: action becomes ts1 := ts1 + 1
Alter_Heater_Status in Envir1Impl: action becomes hss := FALSE
INITIALISATION in Heater_Monitor_TaskImpl: becomes shs := FALSE

Adding Tasking Event-B

  • Setting Context attributes.
    • Using the project Heating_ControllerTutorial2_Partial1.
    • Open the context, select the Tasking Context drop-down box, and select Tasking, as the type for the context.

Each Machine should be completed as follows.

The Temp_Ctrl_TaskImpl Machine

During this part of the tutorial we will cut and paste from Heating_ControllerTutorial2_Completed model when, specifying the task bodies, to save typing. We use the 'Event-B Machine Editor' to edit the Tasking Event-B.

  • In the Tasking section of the Event-B editor, click on + to add a new Machine Type construct.
    • The machine type defaults to Auto Task.
    • Click on the right-arrow symbol by Machine Type.
    • Add a new Task Type section by clicking on its green + symbol.
    • A Machine Type element is added. The task type defaults to Periodic
    • Set a period of 250 milliseconds.
  • Add a new TaskBody.
    • Add a new Task Body section by clicking on its green + symbol.
    • Copy and paste the task body from Heating_ControllerTutorial2_Completed/Temp_Ctrl_TaskImpl
    • Save the model. Ignore the highlighted typing errors, since these annotations will be added by the code generator during pre-processing.

Auto Tasks are tasks that will be declared and defined in the Main procedure of the implementation. The effect of this is that the Auto Tasks are created when the program first loads, and then activated (made ready to run) before the Main procedure body runs.

The Shared Machine

The next step is to identify the Shared_ObjectImpl machine as a Shared Machine.

  • Open the Tasking Section.
  • Add a Machine Type by clicking +.
  • Select Shared in the Machine Type drop Down box.

The Environ Machine

We identify the Envir1Impl as an Environ Machine,

  • Click on +, in the Machine Editor, to add a to add a Tasking Section.
  • A Machine Type element is created.
  • Select Environ Machine in the drop down box.
  • In the Tasking section of the Event-B editor, click on + to add a new Machine Type construct.
    • The machine type defaults to Auto Task, change it to Environ.
    • Click on the right-arrow symbol by Machine Type.
    • Add a new Task Type section by clicking on its green + symbol.
    • A Machine Type element is added. The task type defaults to Periodic
    • Set a period of 100 milliseconds.
  • Add a new TaskBody.
    • Add a new Task Body section by clicking on its green + symbol.
    • Copy and paste the task body from Heating_ControllerTutorial2_Completed/Envir1Impl
    • Save the model.

In the implementation, Environ Tasks are declared and defined in the Main procedure . The Envir1Impl machine models a task that simulates the environment, and can be used to generate simulation code. For deployment in a non-simulated environment the environ machine's generated code can be ignored. To specify the Environment task's behaviour we add edit the task body.

When saving, the task body text is sent to the parser. If parsing is successful then a builder adds the structure to the underlying EMF tree. If parsing fails then an error panel displays the source of the error.

Invoking the Translators

  • To generate code,
    • Right-Click on the composed machine, or any tasking machine in the development, select Code Generation/Translate Event-B to xx where xx is the chosen language.
    • Open the generated code directory in the project to view the source files.
  • To create the Event-B model of the implementation,
    • Right-Click on the composed machine, or any tasking machine in the development, select Code Generation/Translate Tasking Event-B to Event-B.
    • The Event-B model should be updated with the flow control variables. Users are not able to manually edit the generated elements. The additions can be removed using the menu option Code Generation/Remove Generated Event-B

Generated Code

Generated code will be visible in the code directory, in the Event-B project. However a refresh of the workspace is required. The directory is visible in the resource view; or alternatively, click on the view menu in the Event-B perspective, select customize view, and uncheck the all file and folders filter.